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(1) A 43 years old man presented with chronic cough. He gave history of exposure to silica dust in sand blasting factory for the last 9-years. His lung biopsy showed patchy fibrosis and an inflamatory response. Whisch of the following will be the predominant inflammatory cell in this case:

(2) A 29 years old female, a known case of rheumatoid arthritis, underwent synovial biopsy. Biopsy showed intense chronic inflamation. A continous mechanism of stimulation between which of the following set of cells help to maintain inflammation for long periods of time in this chronic disease:

(3) A 32 years old woman presented with a 2cm large breast mass which was diagnosed as ductal carcinoma of breast. She started her treatment 3 months later by which the mass measured 10cm. Which of the following mode of signaling is involved in this rapid increase in size:

(4) A 37 years old man came to emergency with a wound on his arm. The wound involved the skin, superfical and deep dermis. What will be the sequence of events in the repair of this wound:

(5) Once a scar is formed, the process of remodeling involves which of the following type of zinc dependant enzymes:

(6) A 34 years old African man received a wound on his chest. The scar tissue which developed at the site of wound grew beyond the boundaries of the original wound and did not regress. What is this type of scar tissue called:

(7) A 13 years old girl after a road traffic accident received a wound on her leg. By day 3-5 of injury wound site became filled with a highly vascular,inflammed,edematous connective tissue. What is this connective tissue called:

(8) A 17 years old girl had a sore throat. Later on she developed fever. She was advised antibiotics for the infection control and asprin for fever control. Which of the following mediator is released in hypothalamus that causes fever and is the target for aspirin:

(9) A 7 years old boy hurt his left arm while playing. The area soon became swollen,red and warm due to increased blood flow. Which of the following preformed chemical mediator is responsible for this:

(10) Skin biopsy of a patient with a history of wound showed hypovascular tissue with dense collagen and inactive spindle shaped fibroblasts. What is your diagnosis:

(11) Within minutes following a bee sting, a 37 year old man develops marked respiratory stridor with dyspnea and wheezing. He also develops swelling and erythema seen in his arms and legs. An injection of epinephrine helps to reverse these events and he recovers within minutes. Which of the following chemical mediators is most important in the pathogenesis of this condition:

(12) A 22 year old man developed marked right lower quadrant abdominal pain over the past day. On physical examination there was rebound tenderness on palpation over the right iliac fossa. The pain experienced by this patient was predominantly the result of the formation of which of the following chemical mediators:

(13) An inflammatory process that had continued for 3 months included the transformation of tissue macrophages to epithelioid cells. This event is most likely to occur as an inflammatory response to which of the following infectious agent:

(14) A 37 year old man had nausea and vomiting for 5 weeks. He experienced an episode of hematemesis one day back. Upper GI endoscopy was performed, and there was a 1.5 cm diameter lesion in the gastric antrum which on histological examination showed loss of surface epithelium. These findings are most typical for which of the following pathologic process:

(15) Morphological changes seen in chronic non- specific inflammation include an increase in:

(16) The most common mechanism of vascular leakage in inflammation is:

(17) A 55 year old woman touches a pot of boiling water. Within 2 hours, she has marked erythema of the skin of the fingers of her hand, and small blisters appear on the finger pads. This has led to which one of the following inflammatory responses:

(18) Histologic examination of the heart shows extensive growth of fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and deposition of collagen in the mural thrombus. Which of the following terms describes this outcome of thrombosis:

(19) Regarding cutaneous wound healing which of the following statement is correct:

(20) Vascular changes in acute inflamation include:

(21) The cells most frequently found in a granuloma are:

(22) Caseous necrosis and langhans type giant cells are the expected histologic finding of which of the following:

(23) A 43 year old woman has had a chronic cough with fever and weight loss for the past month. A chest radiograph reveals multiple modules from 1 to 4 cm in size, some of which demonstrate caviation in the upper lobes. A sputum sample reveal the pressure of acid fast bacilli. Which of the following cells is the most important in the development of her lung lesious:

(24) With regard to the acute inflammatory response, which is the most common meachanism of vascular leakage:

(25) Regarding composition of exudates, which one of the following is most accurate:

(26) Chronic granulomatous disease CGD is characterized by poor O2-dependent killing ability of which one of the following cell:

(27) Redness and warmth is a cardinal sign of inflammation, which one of the following statement is true for above sign:

(28) An 18 year old man lacerated his left hand and required sutures. The sutures were removed 1 week later. Wound healing continued, but the site became disfigured by a prominent raised, nodular scar that developed over the next 2 months. Which of the following terms best describes the process that occurred during this 2-month period:

(29) Regarding noncaseating granulomas which one following statement is correct:

(30) Which one of the listed receptors is the type of receptor on leukocytes that binds to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and mediates the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide:

(31) A 3 year old boy and other male relatives have a history of multiple recurrent infections, including Aspergillus,Staphylococcus,Serratia,Nocardia and Pseudomonas species. Physical examination shows generalized tender lymphadenopathy. Laboratory findings show normal numbers of morphologically normal circulating WBCs. This child's increased susceptibility to infection is most likely caused by a defect in which of the following steps of the inflammatory response:

(32) During acute inflammation, histamine-induced increased vascular permeability causes the formation of exudates (inflammatory edema). Which of the following cell types is most likely to secrete histamine and cause this increased vascular permeability:

(33) A 10 year old child developed a sore throat and fever over 24 hour's. Physical examination shows pharyngeal erythema and swelling. Laboratory findings include leukocytosis. The child is given acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). Which of the following features of the inflammatory response is most affected by this drug:

(34) What type of leukocyte actively participates in acute inflammatory processes and contains myeloperoxidase within (azurophilic) granules and alkaline phosphatase in its secondary (specific) granules:

(35) A collection of epithelioid histiocytes, usually surrounded by giant cells and a rim of lymphocytes:

(36) Which one of the statement is true for Leukocyte adhesion deficiency In the process of the acute inflammation:

(37) A 5 year old child reaches up to the stove and touches a pot of boiling soup. Within several hours, there is marked erythema of the skin of the fingers on the child's right hand, and small blisters appear on the finger pads. Which of the following terms best describes this process:

(38) In acute inflammation, which is the correct sequence of events with regard to vascular flow and caliber:

(39) Transmigration of neutrophilis through vascular endothelial cells is termed as diapedesis. These molecules helping the neutrophils to undergo diapedesis are:

(40) Which of the following mediators function mainly as inhibitors of inflammation:

(41) A young boy had high grade fever for last 2 days. His throat examination reveals acute pharyngitis. Which of the following labratory finding matches with the clinical picture of the patient:

(42) In acute inflamation:

(43) In acute inflamation which event occur first:

(44) The first vascular response to injury is:

(45) Leukocytes moves into tissues from the vasculatur (extravasation):

(46) Regarding chemical mediators of inflammation:

(47) Chronic inflammation is:

(48) Granulomatous inflammatory reactions:

(49) Leukotrienes play a role in all of the following except:

(50) Platelet activating factor:

(51) A preformed mediator of inflammation is:

(52) Interleukin 1 causes: