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Cell Injury

Cell Injury

(1) In an experiment a tissue preparation is subjected to hypoxic conditions. The Cells in tissues begins to swell with chromatin clumping. ATPs are accumulated with decrease in ATP production. Which of the following ions is accumulated in mitochondria and cytosol, Contributes to these changes and eventual cell death:

(2) Nephrectomy specimen of a 47 years old man showed an area of renal infraction due to atherosclerosis of renal artery. Microscopy revealed a well-demarcated lesion with increase cytoplasmic eosinophilia,karyolysis and intact tissue architecture. What is the type of necrosis in the case:

(3) During development the self reactive Iymphocytes are removed by which of the following mechanism:

(4) A 57 years old man presented with difficulty in micturition. Ultrasound showed an increase in the size of prostate gland. He underwent transurethral resection of prostate. The histopathology revealed an increase in the size of prostatic glands because of an increase in the number of lining cells. What is the type of cellular adaption:

(5) A 42 years old man is exposed to carbon tetrachloride while working in dry cleaning industry. Which of the following intracellular enzymes will help to protect the cells from the oxidative stress caused by this chemical:

(6) A 37 years old man presented with a long term histroy of heart burn. He had a provisional diagnosis of reflux esophagitis and was advised endoscopy. The gatroentrologist noticed that the lower end of esophagus had red velvety mucosa rather than pale, pink color of esophagus. Biopsy showed the replacement of squamous epithelium by specialized columnar epithelium at this site. What is the most important risk involved in this adaptive change:

(7) Pelvic ultrasound of 38 year old female showed a 3 cm mass in area of her right ovary. Histological sections from the ovarian mass reveal tumor with small,round,laminated calcifications. These structures are most likely the result of:

(8) A 47 year old man, coal miner by profession, presented with chronic cough with sputum. His x-rays chest revealed multiple linear opacities in hilar region. Lung biopsy show alveolar wall fibrosis and abundant deposits of black pigment. What is the diagnosis:

(9) A 65 years old man presented with shortness of breath and easy fatiagability. An aortic murmur was audible on chest auscultation. Further investigations revealed calcification of aortic valve causing aortic stenosis. What is the cause of valve calcification in this case:

(10) Action of putrified bacteria on necrotic tissue results in:

(11) A lymphnode on cut section shows cheesy material. On microscopy it shows amorphous,granular,eosinophilic,necrotic center surrounded by granulomatous inflammation. Which of the following types of necrosis is present in this case:

(12) Which one of the following statement is correct regarding the morphological consequences of decreased intracellular ATP during cell injury:

(13) An 80 years old man dies from complication of Alzheimer disease. At autopsy his heart shows dark brown pigment on sectioning. Microscopically there is light brown pigment with H&E staining. Which of the following substance is most likely to be increased in the myocardial fibers in this case:

(14) Which of the following Cellular adaptation is seen after partial resection of liver:

(15) The two pathways of Apoptosis (Extrinsic and Intrinsic) differ in their induction and regulation, but both culminate in the activation of:

(16) The standard stain used for staining of a biopsied tissue is:

(17) On a routine visit to the physician, an otherwise healthy 51 years-old man has a blood pressure of 150/95 mm Hg. If his hypertension remains untreated for years, Which of the following cellular alterations would most likely be seen in his myocardium:

(18) A 16 year old boy sustained blunt trauma to the abdomen when the vehicle he was driving struck a bridge abutment at high speed. Peritneal lavage show a hemoperitoneum and at laparotomy, a small portion of the left lobe of the liver is removed because of the injury. Several weeks later, a CT scan of the abdomen shows that the liver has nearly regained its size before the injury. Which of the following processes best explain this CT scan finding:

(19) A 30 year old man sustains a left femoral fracture in a skiing accident, and his leg is placed in a plaster cast. After the leg has been immobilized for several weeks, the diameter of the left calf has decreased. This change is most likely to result from which of the following alterations in the calf muscles:

(20) A 32 year old man experiences "heartburn" and gastric reflux after eating a large meal. After many months of symptoms, he undergoes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and a biopsy specimen of the esophageal epithelium is obtained. Which of the following pathologic changes has most likely occurred:

(21) In habitual cigarette smokers, psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of tracheobronchial tree is replaced by stratified squamous epithelium. Which of the following mechanism is responsible for this change:

(22) A 50 Years old obese, diabetic male presented to OPD with right upper abdomen discomfort. On abdominal ultrasound, liver is enlarged in size. Biopsy of liver shows accumulation of fat in liver parenchyma. Accumulation of fat is an example of which type of phenomenon:

(23) The most common finding in light microscopy in case of reversible cell injury is:

(24) In an experiment, cells are subjected to radiant energy in the form of x-rays. This results in irreversible cell injury caused by hydrolysis of water. Which of the following cellular enzymes protects the cells from this type of injury:

(25) A 68-year-old woman suddenly lost consciousness; on awakening 1 hour later, she could not speak or move her right arm and leg. Two months later, a head CT scan showed a large cystic area in the left parietal lobe. Which of the following pathologic processes has most likely occurred in the brain:

(26) A chest radiograph of an asymptomatic 37 year old man showed a 3 cm nodule in the middle lobe of the right lung. The nodule was excised with a pulmonary wedge resection, and sectioning showed the nodule to be sharply circumscribed with a soft white center. Culture of tissue from the nodule grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Which of the following pathologic processes has most likely occurred in this nodule:

(27) A 33 year old woman has increasing lethargy and decreased urine output for the past week. Laboratory studies show serum creatinine level of 4.3 mg/dL and urea nitrogen level of 80 mg/dL. A renal biopsy is performed and the specimen is examined using electron microscopy which showed tubular necrosis in kidney. Which of the following morphologic changes most likely suggests this diagnosis:

(28) Which cellular organelle is involved in initiation of intrinsic pathway of apoptosis:

(29) What roles in regulating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis are played by the proteins Bax and Bcl-2:

(30) Which of the following is a feature of necrosis but NOT apoptosis:

(31) A 78 years old lady presented to emergency department with shortness of breath. Despite all efforts by emergency team, she expired. Autopsy of the lady performed. Liver shows deposition of BROWN YELLOW pigment in it. What is the most likely pigment:

(32) A 30 years old industrial worker presented to medicine OPD with complaints of cough and difficulty in breathing since few months. He has been working in that industry since many years. On examination, he has enlarged Lymph Nodes. Biopsy of lymph nodes performed which showed deposition of Black colour pigment. What is the most likely pigment responsible for this appearance of lymph node:

(33) Dystrophic calcification occurs in:

(34) A 60 years old female known case of Bone tumor presented with history of a lump on arm. Biopsy of lump showed excessive deposition of bluish to purple substance. His routine labs were also done which showed hypercalcemia. What is the most likely cause of this substance:

(35) A 38-year-old woman experienced severe abdominal pain with hypotension and shock that led to her death within 36 hours after the onset of the pain. The gross appearance of the mesentery shows chalky white deposits in it. Which of the following pathology as most likely occurred:

(36) Pyogenic bacterial infections and ischemic brain infracts most characteristically produce which one of the listed type of necrosis:

(37) Which one of the following morphological myo cardial finding is an indicator of irreversible injury:

(38) The specific process of necrosis resulting from lack of blood supply is:

(39) In acute pancreatitis, release of pancreatic lipase can lead to:

(40) Which one of the following statement is correct in relation of dystrophic calcification:

(41) Regarding Hyperplasia which statement is correct:

(42) If a biopsy Specimen is not immediately fix into formalin. What could be its consequence:

(43) In an experiment, cells are subjected to radient energy in the form of x--rays. This results in cell injury caused by hydrolysis of water. Which of the following ions is responsible for damage of cells from this type of inury:

(44) On day 28 of her mensutral cycle, a 23 yeras old women experiences onset of menstural bleeding that lasts for 6 day. She has regular cycles for many years. Which one of the following processes is most likely occuring in the endometrium just before the onset of bleeding:

(45) At atuopsy the heart of 63 year old man weighs only 250g and has small right and left ventricles. The myocardium is firm, with a dark choclate brown color throughout. The coronary arteries show minimal atherosclerotic changes. An excessive amount of which of the following substances would most likely to be found in myocardial fibres of this heart:

(46) A 54 years old man experienced onset of severe substernal chest pain over 3 hours. An ECG showed changes consistent with an acute myocardial infraction. After thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) his serum creatine kinase (Ck) level increased. Which one of the following events most likely occured after t-PA therapy:

(47) A 22 year old woman has a congenital anemia that has required multiple transfusions of RBCs for many years. On physical examination she now has no significant findings however, liver function tests show reduced serum albumin. Which one of the following findings would most likely appear in a liver biopsy specimen:

(48) A 55 years old male alcholic presents with symptoms of liver disease and is found to have mildly elevated liver enzymes. A liver biopsy examined with a routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain reveals abnormal clear spaces in the cytoplasm of most of the hepatocytes. Which of the following materials is most likely responsible for this reversiable injury to hepatocytes:

(49) Which of the following chemical mediator can act directly as a free radical to be converted to other highly reactive form:

(50) Which of the following transitional metals can catalyze free radical formation:

(51) Metastatic calcification occurs in:

(52) Which of the following are killed by the extrinsic apoptosis pathway:

(53) Immune mediated vasculitis is associated with which type of necrosis:

(54) Cervical epithelium exhibiting full length cellular atypia, prominent nucleoli and mitosis is an example of which type of cellular adaption:

(55) Rounded eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusions seen in plasma cell tumor is composed of following: