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(1) Antimuscranic drugs are useful in some GIT and Bladder dysfunction. Which of the following drugs is most likely to be indicated in overactive bladder:

(2) Atropine is useful as antidote in treating poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and after exposure to war gases; because it:

(3) A 29-year old woman says that her eyes will not stay open despite the fact that she is not tired. On physical examination, her facial musculature weakens as she talks. Which of the following drugs would be most useful in helping to make a diagnosis in this patient:

(4) Enterohepatic recycling of a drug is rellied upon in certain situations to increase the bioavailability of drugs. Which of the following drugs can interfere with E/H Recycling and can lead to therapeutic failure by decreasing the bioavailability of the affected drug:

(5) All the following drugs are used topically in the treatment of chronic wide-angle glaucoma. Which one reduces intraocular pressure by decreasing the formation of the aqueous humor:

(6) A patient is noted to have paroxysmal episodes of hypertension, tremors, weakness and sweating. Urinary catecholamine and their metabolites are elevated and a CT scan of the abdomen detects a mass within the adrenal gland. If the tumor is deemed inoperable, pharmacotherapy of the above disorder may include which of the following drugs:

(7) After subcutaneous injection of a clinical dose of a drug into a healthy young adult, dilation of the pupil but reacting to light and a rise in systolic blood pressure are produced. The drug could be:

(8) The two instances in which epinephrine is indicated in medical practice emergencies are:

(9) A child has swallowed the contents of two bottles of a nasal decongestant whose primary ingredient is a potent alpha adrenoceptors agonist drug. The signs of alpha activation that may occur in this child include:

(10) Receptor actions of acetylcholine are mimicked by nicotine at which one of the following sites:

(11) Anti-cholinergic drugs like atropine are useful as pre anesthetic medication because they decrease:

(12) The cause of death in poisoning from an irreversible anti-cholinesterases, like diisopropylflourophosphate, is:

(13) Which of the following can cause vasomotor reversal with adrenaline:

(14 ) A 45-year old woman presents with symptoms of parasympathetic over activity. She is not currently taking any medication. Which drug could reverse the parasympathetic tone in this woman:

(15) A 24-year old man is brought to the emergency room by a group of friends who said that he had suddenly become restless, confused and incoordinated after taking some pills. Physical examination reveals increased body temperature, tachycardia, cutaneous flush and widely dilated pupils unresponsive to light. The patient complains of dryness of mouth. He probably ingested which of the following drugs:

(16) While treating a patient of essential hypertension with Beta Blockers, who is also on the verge of congestive heart failure, which of the following Beta blocker drugs would be preferred because of its ISA property:

(17) During an ophthalmic examination, visualization of the retina and measurement of the refractive index of the lens is necessary. Which of the following drugs will produce both mydriasis and cyclopegia:

(18) A mother brings her three year old child to the emergency department. The child has ingested some eye drops. The lable on the dropper has been torn off. The child has a rapid heart rate, flushed appearance, elevated temperature and mucous membranes of the mouth and nose appear dry . Which of the following eyedrops is producing these symptoms:

(19) All the following drugs are used topically in the treatment of chronic wide-angle glaucoma. Which one reduces intraocular pressure by decreasing the formation of the aqueous humor:

(20) We want to prescribe scopolamine, as a transdermal drug delivery system (skin patch), for a patient who will be leaving for an expensive cruise. Which finding would rule-out prescribing the drug, because it is likely to pose adverse effects or be truly contraindicated:

(21) Your pharmacology laboratory correctly identified an unknown compound several years ago. This compound caused an increase in heart rate, reduction in mean blood pressure and relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. This compound is marketed today under the names of:

(22) Your pharmacology laboratory is given a new compound for screening. It is found to increase heart rate, reduce blood pressure and reduce uterine contractility. You would classify this agent as:

(23) Your diabetic patient is also an exercise fanatic. After a particularly strenuous workout, his blood glucose levels become alarmingly high. Which of the following would reduce this effect of strenuous exercise on blood glucose levels:

(24) When given to a man, a drug causes bradycardia, increased gut motility and pupillary constriction. The drug could be:

(25) A patient is noted to have paroxysmal episodes of hypertension, tremors, weakness and sweating. Urinary catecholamine and their metabolites are elevated and a CT scan of the abdomen detects a mass within the adrenal gland. If the tumor is deemed inoperable, pharmacotherapy of the above disorder may include which of the following drugs:

(26) A sixty year-old woman, who has smoked since she was 16 years old, complains of shortness of breath, flutter in her chest, and a heart rate of 160 with an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. You conclude that she has atrial fibrillation – induced congestive heart failure. You decide to initiate mono therapy using:

(27) A 43-year-old male hypertensive patient has been on Atenolol for one year but complains of sexual dysfunction. Which one of the following drugs would be an effective replacement for Atenolol and relieve this adverse effect:

(28) A 65 year old man has cardiac risk factors of hypertension and is on aspirin. Echocardiography shows reduced ejection fraction at 50%. Which of the following medications may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular events:

(29) A child has swallowed the contents of two bottles of a nasal decongestant whose primary ingredient is a potent alpha adrenoceptors agonist drug. The signs of alpha activation that may occur in this child include:

(30) Mr. George W Bush, a 65years old Ex.US president is talking sildenafil for erectile dysfunction. He is a known patient of asthma and hypertension. His Asthma andhypertension are well controlled with medication. Now he is also having episodes of angina. Which of the following anti-anginal drug is contraindicated for Mr. G WBush:

(31) Which one of the following anti-hypertensive drugs is most suitable for a hypertensive patient who also is also suffering from diabetes mellitus:

(32) Mr. Dic. Chinny a high profile official is suffering from hypertension, hear! failure, diabetes and bronchial asthma. He is getting polypharmacy for all of his ailments. Which of the following drug is useful for bronchial asthma but can be fatal for cardiac asthma:

(33) A patient is rushed to the emergency ward with severe left sided chest pain. ECG reveals myocardial infarction. He is given opioid analgesic and nitroglycerin and one of the following drugs that prolongs survival rate in these patients:

(34) A patient requires an ultra-short acting beta blocker during surgery. Which one of the following beta blockers is he given:

(35) A 27 year old woman comes to you for consultation. She is about to take a trip on a ship but she is concerned about sea sickness. She has been on airplanes before and has problems of motion sickness. Her friend has told her there is a patch available for this problem. Which drug will you prescribe her:

(36) A patient is given a cholinomimetic for treatment of glaucoma that causes Phosphorylation of both anionic & esteratic site of cholinestrases. Which one of the following drugs was he given:

(37) A medical doctor Dr. Tony in Queen’s Hospital London is being sued by a known patient of glaucoma Mr. Gordon Brown after he gave him some eye drops that resulted in his blindness. What drug did he prescribe Mr. Gordon:

(38) At the extremely busy hospital in Karachi a house officer is giving the injection of Atropine to all his patients for prophylaxis against threatened terrorist attack with a war gas. His senior tells him to add another drug as well because Atropine may block all the actions of the organosphosphorus compounds except:

(39) An 11 year old boy was brought to the emergency by some of his friends because he started going crazy after eating seeds from a plant while "trying to get high" the boy was incoherent. His skin was hot and dry. His pupils were dilated and unresponsive to light. Pulse is 150 min and rectal temperature is 40 C the presumptive diagnosis was drug toxicity due to the ingestion of a compound similar to:

(40) A patient poisoned with an organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor can be treated with atropine along with which of the following:

(41) A patient is being administered a local anesthetic to which epinephrine has been added. Which of the following is not a reason for adding epinephrine to the local anesthetic:

(42) Mr. Ahmed a known diabetic and asthmatic patient, presents in the medical OPD of RIHS with increased blood pressure. Which of the following beta adrenergic antagonist will be preferred in this patient:

(43) Phenoxybenzamine is given prior to surgical removal of catecholamine secreting tumor of cells derived from adrenal medulla to prevent:

(44) One of the following drugs if given before Adrenaline, would convert the effects of Adrenalin on blood pressure to those produced by isoprenaline alone ie; will lead to vasomotor reversal. Which one it could be:

(45) Timolol eye drops are preferred over pilocarpine eye drops for treating glaucoma because:

(46) Antimuscranic drugs are useful in some GIT and Bladder dysfunction. Which of the following drugs is most likely to be indicated in overactive bladder& nocturnal enuresis:

(47) One of the following drugs can cause vasomotor reversal when given before adrenaline. Which one it could be:

(48) The two instances in which epinephrine is indicated in medical practice emergencies are:

(49) During an ophthalmic examination, visualization of the retina and measurement of the refractive index of the lens is necessary. Which of the following drugs will produce both mydriasis and cyclopegia when instilled in conjunctival sac & has ashort duration of action:

(50) Which of the following drugs acts by inhibiting re-uptake of norepinephrine at adrenergic nerve terminals:

(51) Mr Ahmed known asthmatic takes one tablet of a Beta-2 agonist at night. Which of the following drug he is taking:

(52) Which of the following agents blocks both K+ channels involved in cardiac repolarization and beta adrenergic receptors:

(53) Select the ultra short acting cardioselective β-adrenergic blocker useful in perioperative hypertension amongst the following:

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